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This is a procedure to treat the narrow opened heart valve. These valves may be treated with a valvuloplasty operation. To allow blood to flow through the heart, the aortic, mitral, tricuspid, and pulmonary valves all open and close. The leaflets of the stenotic heart valve may thicken, stiffen, or fuse together. Blood flow through the valve is decreased by its stenosis.

Using a valvuloplasty, the blood flow through the heart valve may be enhanced. Additionally, it might lessen chest discomfort and dyspnea, two additional signs of heart valve damage. Balloon valvuloplasty, balloon valvotomy, and percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty are other synonyms for valvuloplasty.

Balloon valvuloplasty is a cardiac operation performed to open up stenotic or rigid heart valves using a catheter with a balloon on the tip (such as the aortic or mitral). Another name for it is balloon valvotomy. It is a less invasive procedure since a catheter is introduced into the blood vessel from the groin rather than replacing the valve via cardiothoracic surgery or other open procedures. Depending on which heart valve is affected, there are many kinds of balloon valvulotomies. Some examples include percutaneous balloon tricuspid valvuloplasty, pulmonary valvuloplasty, mitral valvuloplasty, and aortic valvuloplasty.

Valvuloplasty, also known as balloon valvuloplasty or valvotomy, is a non-surgical treatment that fixes your heart valve by inserting a catheter (it is a small, flexible tube) into an artery or vein in your groin.

A balloon valvuloplasty can be used during surgery to open a heart valve. Balloon valvuloplasty is also known as dilation or balloon valvotomy. Heart valves, which serve as gates, control both the blood flow into and out of the heart as well as the blood flow between its upper and lower chambers.

During this process, a catheter—a little, flexible tube—is placed into a blood vessel. Through that blood vessel, the medical practitioner places the tube into the patient's heart. In order to improve blood flow and valve performance, the valve opening will be increased during this procedure. If the heart valves are injured, they might not work properly.

The four heart valves are the aortic, mitral, tricuspid, and pulmonary. These valves are found when the heart's four chambers come together. These valves, which open and close to regulate blood flow from one chamber to the next, are essential to the healthy operation of the heart and circulatory system.

A catheter (a short, flexible tube) is inserted into an artery or vein in your groin during valvuloplasty, also known as balloon valvuloplasty or valvotomy, a non-surgical procedure that repairs your heart valve. The balloon is extended in the restricted valve of the heart using the catheter after being guided there to separate the leaflets. Penn cardiologists can treat: with valvuloplasty:

Mitral stenosis: If a patient has rheumatic mitral valve stenosis and their anatomy allows for valvuloplasty, it should be the suggested course of treatment.

Pulmonary stenosis: Since this condition is congenital, children are typically the ones who receive treatment. Adults who need more care for their pulmonary stenosis are treated by Penn cardiologists using valvuloplasty.

Aortic stenosis: In patients who are not candidates for transcatheter aortic valve replacement or aortic valve surgery, our cardiologists employ balloon valvuloplasty as a palliative treatment to alleviate the symptoms of aortic stenosis (TAVR).

Balloon valvuloplasty can be used to treat tricuspid, pulmonary, mitral, and aortic valve stenosis, however occasionally the risks may outweigh the advantages. The forms of valvular stenosis and indications for balloon valvuloplasty are listed below.

Tricuspid Valve Stenosis 

Tricuspid stenosis is treated with a combination of medical and valve operations. Valve replacement surgery is preferred to balloon valvulotomy in patients with severe tricuspid valve stenosis since balloon valvuloplasty can worsen tricuspid regurgitation in these patients. Patients' surgical risks must balance the benefits of balloon valvuloplasty over tricuspid valve replacement surgery in cases with isolated, symptomatic, severe tricuspid stenosis with mild to moderate tricuspid regurgitation.

Pulmonary Valve Stenosis

Percutaneous balloon pulmonary valvulotomy (BPV) is preferred as the first-line treatment for the typical dome-shaped valvular pulmonary stenosis in cases of severe (more than 60 mmHg) or moderate (gradient 40 to 60 mmHg) pulmonary stenosis (gradient greater than 60 mmHg). BPV is the recommended treatment option for babies with severe pulmonary stenosis.

Mitral Valve Stenosis

Percutaneous mitral balloon valvuloplasty is the recommended treatment for patients with the following conditions who have mitral valve stenosis: older patients or those who are at high risk for surgery; severe mitral stenosis; pliable, noncalcified mitral valves; symptomatic; absence of left atrial thrombus; absence of moderate to severe mitral regurgitation.

Those with rheumatic mitral stenosis are the ones who frequently undergo it. Percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty for congenital mitral stenosis has little clinical history.

Aortic Valve Stenosis

In calcified aortic stenosis, the use of balloon aortic valvotomy (BAV) is limited. Frequently, just two situations are acceptable for its use:

1. Percutaneous BAV is used as a temporary fix in patients with severe aortic stenosis symptoms before undergoing aortic valve replacement surgery or transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR).

2. Patients who need non-cardiac surgery right away because of severe aortic stenosis symptoms

3. Application in congenital aortic stenosis: Balloon aortic valvotomy (or valvuloplasty, BAV) is the first-line therapy choice for children and younger persons with aortic stenosis that is a congenital disease without significant valve calcification.

Using valvuloplasty, a narrowed heart valve can be corrected (valve stenosis). It can be used to treat a number of disorders, including pulmonary valve stenosis, mitral valve stenosis, aortic valve stenosis (pulmonic stenosis), Tricuspid valve stenosis

If certain types of heart valve stenosis are not addressed, they may have negative effects like arrhythmias and cardiac failure.

You and your doctor can talk about whether valvuloplasty or another treatment is ideal for you if you have a certain kind and stage of heart valve disease. Valvuloplasty may be suggested if you have severe valve constriction that is causing symptoms. However, even when they are symptom-free or have a modest case of heart valve disease, some patients need valvuloplasty.

The decision to perform a valvuloplasty may also be influenced by the damaged valve. Adults who have had valvuloplasty, for instance, frequently suffer the aortic valve narrowing once again. Consequently, the procedure is usually carried out if you are too unwell for surgery or are waiting for a valve replacement.

What you can expect

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In a hospital, valvuloplasty is typically carried out while the patient is awake. And to help you feel relaxed, a sedative may be administered.

Valvuloplasty is carried out through a procedure called cardiac catheterization. The heart specialist (cardiologist) inserts a soft, thin tube (catheter) with a balloon tip into a blood vessel, commonly in the groin. The catheter is precisely aimed at the narrowing valve of the heart. Once in position, the balloon is inflated to widen the valve and enhance blood flow. Once the balloon has deflated, the catheter with the balloon is removed.

Following the surgery, an overnight hospital stay is typically required. Following valvuloplasty, routine medical checks and imaging tests of the heart are necessary to ensure that the heart valve is working appropriately.

Valvuloplasty may improve blood flow to the heart and alleviate symptoms. However, the valve could narrow once more. You might eventually need another valvuloplasty or a different kind of heart surgery, like a valve replacement or repair.



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