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It is possible to perform valvuloplasty to open a stenotic (tight) heart valve. Your doctor does valvuloplasty by inserting a catheter—a very tiny, narrow, hollow tube—into a blood vessel in the groyne and advancing it into the aorta and into the heart. Your doctor pushes a big balloon at the catheter's tip against the rigid valve until the flaps (leaflets) of the valve are forced open. The doctor deflates the balloon and removes the catheter after opening the valve.

There are valves between each of the pumping chambers of the heart to maintain forward blood flow during the heart's contractions:

  • There is a valve between the right atrium and the right ventricle the tricuspid valve.
  • The pulmonic (or pulmonary) valve. That is situated between the pulmonary artery and the right ventricle
  • One is between the left atrium and the left ventricle is the mitral valve.
  • And one is between the left ventricle and the aorta is the aortic valve.

A stiff heart valve may be opened with a procedure called valvuloplasty. However, valvuloplasty cannot always be used to address heart valve stiffness.

The heart valves may not function properly if they get ill or damaged. Valvular stenosis (stiffened valve) and valvular regurgitation are conditions that could harm the heart valves (leaky valve). The heart muscle has to work harder to pump blood through a stiff valve, assuming there is one (or many stiff valves). Infection (such as rheumatic fever or staphylococcus infections), congenital abnormalities, and age can all result in stiff valves. Blood leaks backward and less blood is pumped in the right direction if one or more valves develop leaks.

Heart valve disease might cause the following symptoms:

  • Dizziness
  • Chest pain
  • Trouble breathing
  • Palpitations
  • Edema (also called swelling) of the feet, ankles, or abdomen
  • Or there is a rapid weight gain due to fluid retention

  • Blood flow can be impeded when any of the four heart valves—the aortic, pulmonary, mitral, and tricuspid—become narrow (stenotic).
  • By stretching out restricted heart valves, balloon valvuloplasty, also known as valvulotomy or valvotomy, is a minimally invasive cardiac catheterization technique.
  • The treatment can be used to treat individuals with pulmonary valve stenosis, mitral valve stenosis, and aortic valve stenosis.
  • Leaders in the discipline of interventional cardiology are our cardiologists. We conduct research and hold leadership positions in national heart organisations in order to promote the highest possible standards for cardiologist treatment.

• A valvuloplasty often goes like this:

• Take off any jewellery or other anything that can obstruct the operation. If you use either a hearing aid or dentures, you may wear them.

• Before the procedure, put on a hospital gown and void your bladder.

• If necessary, a medical practitioner will begin an intravenous (IV) line in your hand or arm so they can administer IV fluids or an injection of medication.

• It is possible to shave off extra hair if it is present at the catheter insertion site (groyne area).

• The room will include many monitor screens that will display your vital signs, pictures of the catheter being inserted into the heart, and views of the heart's internal architecture as the dye is being injected by your doctor.

• A sedative will be administered intravenously (IV) before the treatment to assist you to relax. However, you'll probably be conscious throughout the process.

• A medical professional will examine, record, and compare your pulses below the injection site to your pulses following the procedure.

• The insertion site will receive an injection of local anaesthetic. After the local anaesthetic is given, there may be a brief period of stinging at the injection site. When the local anaesthetic has finished working, your doctor will place an introducer, also known as a sheath, into the blood vessel. This is a plastic tube that will be used to advance the catheter into the blood artery and into the heart. The valvuloplasty catheter will be inserted into the blood vessel and into the heart by your doctor through the sheath.

• Your doctor will insert the catheter into the valve and then inject contrast dye through the catheter to examine the area. When the contrast dye is delivered into the IV line, you can experience certain side effects. These side effects may include flushing, a metallic or salty aftertaste on the tongue, or a momentary headache. These effects often only last a short while.

• If you experience any breathing issues, sweating, numbness, itching, chills, nausea or vomiting, or heart palpitations, let your doctor know.

• On a monitor, the doctor will observe the injection of the contrast dye. He or she might urge you to inhale deeply and hold your breath for a moment.

• After the balloon has been placed and inflated, you can experience some light wooziness or possibly momentary chest discomfort. When the balloon is inflated and deflated, this should stop. Tell your doctor right away if you experience any significant discomfort or pain, such as chest pain, jaw pain, arm pain, back pain, shortness of breath, or trouble breathing.

• To open the valve, your doctor could blow up and blow down the balloon multiple times.

• The catheter will be removed by your doctor once the valve has been sufficiently expanded. He or she may use sutures, a closure device that employs collagen to seal the opening in the artery, or manual pressure to stop bleeding from the blood vessel to shut the catheter insertion site. Which approach is best for your situation will be decided by your doctor.

• If your doctor closes the wound with a device, a sterile dressing will be placed there. If manual pressure is used, the physician (or an assistant) will maintain pressure on the insertion site in order to promote the formation of a clot. A very tight bandage will be applied to the area once the bleeding has ceased.

It may be recommended by your doctor that you wait 4 to 6 hours before removing the introducer, or sheath, from the insertion site. This allows the effects of the blood-thinning medicine to lessen. You must remain flat on the ground during this period. Your nurse may give you medicine to ease your discomfort if you start to feel uneasy in this position.

You'll be taken there to receive treatment. If the insertion was in the groyne, you won't be able to bend your leg for a few hours. You can place a sheet over the knee of the affected leg and tuck the ends under the mattress on either side of the bed to create a loose constraint that will remind you to keep your leg straight.

What happens after a valvuloplasty?

  • You might be brought to the recovery area for monitoring after the procedure or brought back to your hospital room. After the treatment, you will spend several hours flat in bed. Your vital signs, the insertion site, as well as the circulation and sensation in the affected limb or arm, will all be observed by a nurse.
  • If you experience any tightness in your chest, the pain of any kind, warmth, bleeding, or discomfort at the site of the needle insertion in your arm or leg, tell your nurse straight once.
  • Depending on your particular situation, bed rest could last anywhere from two to six hours. Your bed rest may last less time if your doctor inserts a closure device.
  • The introducer or sheath may occasionally be left at the site of insertion. If so, you will have a prolonged period of bed rest. You can be given a light supper after the sheath is taken off.
  • For pain or discomfort at the insertion site or from having to lie still and flat for an extended amount of time, medication may be used.
  • You will be urged to consume water and other liquids to help your body rid itself of the contrast dye.
  • Because of the effects of the contrast dye and the increased fluid intake, you might experience frequent urges to urinate. While on bed rest, you will need to use a bedpan or urinal to avoid bending your injured arm or leg.
  • If your doctor doesn't specify otherwise, you can resume your regular diet after the operation.
  • You are allowed to leave your bed once the allotted amount of time has passed. The nurse will assist you while getting out of bed for the first time, and she may also check your blood pressure while you are sitting, lying in bed, and standing. To prevent any vertigo from the extended time of bed rest, get out of bed slowly.
  • After your procedure, you'll probably spend the night in the hospital. Your stay may be longer depending on your health and the outcome of your treatment. You'll get thorough instructions on how to discharge yourself and recover.

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